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The Asiatic softshell turtle or black-rayed softshell turtle Amyda cartilaginea  is a species of softshell turtle in the Trionychidae family. It is not the only softshell turtle in Asia most trionychines are Asian. On juveniles, the carapace is dark brown or black, however this color fades with age.
Yellow dots, and the occasional black spot, can be found on the shell, but these too fade as the turtle gets older. Its plastron is sexually dimorphic , appearing white in males and gray in females.
The head of Amyda cartilaginea can be black or brown. Its head typically displays yellow dots that sometimes appear to fuse together, creating elongated streaks.
As the turtle ages, its nape region becomes white or gray. This is an adaptation that, coupled with its great flexibility, aids the turtle in breathing when it has buried itself. The Asiatic soft-shell turtle's limbs also have yellow spots, but these are usually less in quantity and difficult to distinguish. Its feet are wide and flat, resembling paddles.
As a final descriptive note, the males have longer and thicker tails than females. Amyda cartilaginea can be found in tropical regions, freshwater habitats, rainforest terrestrial biomes, in the aquatic biomes of lakes, ponds, canals and lowland streams. The Asiatic soft-shell is an omnivore, meaning it will feed off of plants and animals when given the chance.
It has the ability to stay under water for long periods of time because of the gill like structure it possesses. This gives Amyda cartilaginea the ability to sneak up on prey. Amyda cartilaginea specifically prefers the seeds of marsh plants. It also sometimes chooses to munch on rubber tree seeds.
As with most animals, as the specific habitat of each turtle changes, its specific diet also slightly changes. Amyda cartilaginea is polygynangrous, meaning each female mates with several different males and males mate with several different females. However, this may vary based on the specific geographic location of each turtle.
Breeding typically occurs three to four times per year. Females reach sexual maturity at eight to ten years, while males reach sexual maturity at four to five years.
The incubation period ranges from 18—20 weeks,  with the size of each clutch ranging from one to 30 eggs. The nests of the Asiatic soft-shell are built in damp, sandy areas built close to mud banks;  the mother leaves her eggs after building a safe environment for them.
Natural predators are predators from the prey's natural range. Natural predators of Amyda cartilaginea are the smooth-coated otter and the tiger.
Natural predators of the turtle's eggs are monitor lizards, crows, snakes, eagles, and wild pigs. Known species parasitic to Amyda cartilaginea are, bacteria: Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas veronii ; fungus: Saprolegnia and ectoparasitic worm: Pseudocalceostoma.
The Asiatic soft shelled turtle goes through a life cycle similar to many other turtles around the world. It begins its life by hatching from a clutch of eggs laid in sand along a body of water. This clutch can range in size from four to eight eggs depending on the size and age of the female that laid the clutch.
However, the incubation period is greatly dependent on climate; not only for the rate of incubation, but also the sex of the majority of these turtles. Temperature has a great influence on what sex the turtle will become, females are typically born at around 30 degrees Celsius and males at 25 degrees Celsius. Monitor lizards along with crows and serpent eagles are known to eat these young turtles.
The juvenile turtles that escape these early threats will most likely continue to grow and develop into sexually reproducing adults.
For females this takes around 20 months. This is partially due to the fact that many Asiatic soft-shells are caught as a food source, the larger and thus older turtles being more desirable since they produce more meat. The Asian softshell turtle, otherwise known as Amyda cartilaginea , is made up of three main types of species, two of which branch into further subspecies.
The three main types of discovered species are as follows: Amyda cartilaginea , Amyda ornata , and Amyda unnamed due to a relative lack of information on this species.
Both Amyda cartilaginea and Amyda ornata branch into further subspecies, while Amyda unnamed is a terminal clade in itself. Amyda cartilagineas subspecies are: Amyda cartilaginea cartilaginea located in E. Sunde, E. Amyda ornatas subspecies include Amyda ornata ornata Found in Laos and Cambodia , Amyda ornata phayrei Found in Thailand and Mizoram , and Amyda ornata subspecies unnamed found in Bangladesh. The Asiatic softshell turtle is found in wetlands and rivers, mostly in different parts of Asia.
With business developing that rely on the exploitation of Amyda cartilaginea , the population of this species has declined. There is more worry now than ever about the danger of the Asiatic soft-shell's exploitation. In fact, it is hard to say exactly how much longer this species will be around. Amyda cartilaginea is key to trading business in the areas it resides in, such as Asia and India. It are one of the few species harvested where they naturally reside, providing food for the people in the surrounding areas.
They are an important food in the Sarawak culture. However, the exploitation and trade of Amyda cartilaginea may be hurting the turtle's population.
Millions of Asiatic soft-shells are shipped around these regions every day, causing more to be shipped than what is produced in their habitat. The United States has some regions where these turtles reside, and used to participate in trade of the Asiatic soft-shell as well. However, once this trade was proven to have some danger on the turtle's population, laws were put in place to stop trading Amyda cartilaginea in the United States.
Later on, other countries began to do this as well. As the trade for this species grows, the number of turtles remaining drops. However, there aren't any against harvesting Amyda cartilaginea for food. Since selling for human consumption is one of biggest markets these turtles are sold in, the laws put in place have made only a slight difference in the Asiatic soft-shell's population drop.
Harvesting is done mostly locally, since it allows the turtle's meat to be made freshly, and is quickly available to residents. Trading to other countries is done to provide food, however Amyda cartilaginea is also used for medicinal purposes.
Amyda cartelgenea has different ways of communicating. Its snout is used for hunting, smelling predators, and breathing. Asiatic soft-shells bury themselves for both protection and hunting; when a threat is perceived, the Asiatic soft-shell has the tendency to become aggressive.
Therefore, the Asiatic soft-shelled turtle would not make a suitable pet and subsequently has not been domesticated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Asiatic softshell turtle Conservation status. Boddaert , Vertebrate Zoology. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 29 May Ralph Curtis Books. Sanibel Island, Florida. Amyda cartilaginea , p.
Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved Journal of Indonesia Natural History. Bloomsbury Publishing. Encyclopedia of Life. Trionychidae family. Species of the Trionychidae family. Florida softshell turtle Smooth softshell turtle Spiny softshell turtle. Asian narrow-headed softshell turtle Burmese narrow-headed softshell turtle Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle. Nubian flapshell turtle Senegal flapshell turtle. Aubry's flapshell turtle Zambezi flapshell turtle. Malayan softshell turtle. Burmese flapshell turtle Indian flapshell turtle Sri Lankan flapshell turtle.
Black softshell turtle Burmese peacock softshell Indian softshell turtle Indian peacock softshell turtle Leith's softshell turtle.
Wattle-necked softshell turtle. Asian giant softshell turtle New Guinea giant softshell turtle Northern New Guinea giant softshell turtle.
Chinese softshell turtle Hunan softshell turtle Lesser Chinese softshell turtle Northern Chinese softshell turtle. Euphrates softshell turtle Yangtze giant softshell turtle. Phylogenetic arrangement of turtles based on turtles of the world update: Annotated checklist and atlas of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status. Pelomedusa Pelusios. See also List of Testudines families. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from October Articles with permanently dead external links CS1 errors: missing periodical Articles with 'species' microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with dead external links from April Commons category link is on Wikidata Taxonomy articles created by Polbot.
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Amyda cartilaginea, 092
The Asiatic soft-shelled turtle, Amyda cartilaginea , is primarily found in southeastern Asia, in the lowlands of the peninsula and on the islands of Sumatra, Java, Lombok, and Borneo. It is present in all the nations of southeast Asia except the Philippines. Fritz et al. They also give a record for the species occurrence in Bangladesh.
Asiatic softshell turtle
Go to: main text of page main navigation local menu. Alveolar surface of lower jaw without a longitudinal symphyseal ridge ; seven to eight pairs of pleuralia, all separated by neurals ; a single neural between the first pair of pleurals fide BAUR Diagnosis maculosa. Amyda cartilaginea maculosa differs from the nominotypical subspecies by a more massive head with a relatively short and blunt proboscis, a lighter base colouration olive to brown instead of dark brown to blackish , the lack of contrasting yellow spotting and less pronounced nuchal tubercles. Juveniles and young adults bear on their back a characteristic saddle-shaped dark mark.