It is a medium-sized to large tree up to 45 m tall. The bole is straight and cylindrical and branchless for more than 25 m, up to cm in diameter but generally less. Sometimes with small buttresses up to 2 m high and extending up to 60 cm from the trun. It is reported to grow best on deep, moist, alluvial sites, often in secondary forests along riverbanks.
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Neolamarckia cadamba , with English common names burflower-tree , laran , and Leichhardt pine ,  and called kadam  locally, is an evergreen , tropical tree native to South and Southeast Asia. The genus name honours French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. It has scented orange flowers in dense globe-shaped clusters. The flowers are used in perfumes. The tree is grown as an ornamental plant and for timber and paper-making. Kadam features in Indian religions and mythologies. It is a large tree with a broad crown and straight cylindrical bole.
It is quick growing, with broad spreading branches and grows rapidly in the first 6—8 years. Flowering usually begins when the tree is 4—5 years old. Kadam flowers are sweetly fragrant, red to orange in colour, occurring in dense, globular heads of approximately 5. The fruit of N. On maturing, the fruit splits apart, releasing the seeds, which are then dispersed by wind or rain.
The larvae of the commander Moduza procris , a brush-footed butterfly , consume this species. The flowers attract pollinators. The botanical name of this species has been the subject of a long taxonomic debate, beginning in the s. The problem arose because scientific names are based on type specimens. In Jean-Baptiste Lamarck described a specimen under the name Cephalanthus chinensis , stating that it came from Madagascar.
In , Achille Richard created the name Anthocephalus indicus , stating that the species came from Asia and that his description was based on the same specimen as Lamarck's Cephalanthus chinensis.
The issue is whether Richard was indeed using the same specimen as Lamarck; the geographical origin is said to be different, and the descriptions do not match; for example in Lamarck's Cephalanthus chinensis the inflorescences are axillary whereas in Richard's Anthocephalus they are terminal. If specimens were the same, then Anthocephalus is a synonym of the Madagascan Cephalanthus and cannot be a generic name for the Asian kadam tree.
If they were different in spite of Richard's claim that they were the same then Anthocephalus could be a generic name for the kadam tree.
Based on the latter view, the name Anthocephalus chinensis has been widely used for the kadam tree. The current view taken by most taxonomic sources is that Richard's Anthocephalus indicus or Anthocephalus chinensis is a synonym of Cephalanthus chinensis now transferred to the genus Breonia as Breonia chinensis Lam. Capuron , and that the widespread use of Anthocephalus chinensis for the kadam tree is an error. This erroneous sense of the scientific name is shown by writing A.
Given that Richard's name for the kadam tree is incorrect, the earliest name is William Roxburgh 's Nauclea cadamba. In , Jean Marie Bosser created the new generic name Neolamarckia , honouring Lamarck, for the Asian genus which matched Richard's description of his Anthocephalus , transferring Nauclea cadamba as Neolamarckia cadamba Roxb. The fruit and inflorescences are reportedly edible by humans. The fresh leaves are fed to cattle. The timber is used for plywood, light construction, pulp and paper, boxes and crates, dug-out canoes, and furniture components.
Kadamba yields a pulp of satisfactory brightness and performance as a hand sheet. The wood can be easily impregnated with synthetic resins to increase its density and compressive strength.
It is easy to work, with hand and machine tools, cuts cleanly, gives a very good surface and is easy to nail. The timber air dries rapidly with little or no degrade. Kadamba wood is very easy to preserve using either open tank or pressure-vacuum systems. Kadamba is one of the most frequently planted trees in the tropics. The tree is grown along avenues, roadsides and villages for shade. Kadamba are suitable for reforestation programs. It sheds large amounts of leaf and non-leaf litter which on decomposition improves some physical and chemical properties of soil under its canopy.
This reflects an increase in the level of soil organic carbon, cation-exchange capacity , available plant nutrients and exchangeable bases. A yellow dye is obtained from the root bark. An extract of the leaves serves as a mouth gargle. The leaf extract has recently been used to produce silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The kadamba flower was the emblem of Athmallik State , one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.
The kadamba lends its name to the Kadamba Dynasty that ruled from Banavasi in what is now the state of Karnataka from CE to CE, as per Talagunda inscription of c. According to Hindu tradition the 27 nakshatras , constituting 12 Houses Rasis and nine planets , are specifically represented precisely by 27 trees —one for each star. The kadamba tree is said to represent Shatabhisha , roughly corresponding to Aquarii. Kadamba is mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana.
Radha and Krishna are supposed to have conducted their love play in the hospitable and sweet-scented shade of the kadamba tree. He was in the form of a spear under a kadamba tree. An episode from the life of Krishna narrates of when he stole the garments of gopis when they were bathing in a pond near Vrindavan.
Varuna , the sea-god, had forbidden nude bathing in rivers, ponds and other public places, but gopis often resorted to it. One day, to teach them a lesson, Krishna reached the bank of the pond where they were taking a bath and took away their garments and spread them on the branches of nearby kadamba tree.
He himself climbed the tree and hid there behind a branch. After the gopis had bathed, they looked for their garments but found them missing. Suddenly their attention was drawn to the nearby kadamba tree by the stirring of its branches. When they looked up, they saw Krishna hiding there and their garments scattered all over the branches of the tree.
Krishna insisted that they come out naked to receive their garments. This episode is portrayed in song, story, painting and artifacts, in the backdrop of the kadamba tree. Karam-Kadamba is a popular harvest festival, celebrated on the eleventh lunar day of the month Bhadra. A twig of the tree is brought and worshipped in the courtyard of the house.
Later in the day, young ears of grain are distributed among friends and relatives. This festive custom has been adopted by the Tulu people. Onam Kerala and Huttari Kodagu are regional variants of this festival. The kadamba tree is also associated with a tree deity called Kadambariyamman.
In Theravada Buddhism , the kadamba tree was where Sumedha Buddha achieved enlightenment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Close-up of flower Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae. Gita Govinda by Jayadeva. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved July Retrieved 13 September Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
In Dassanayke, M. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Rotterdam: A. Cited in Razafimandimbison Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 22 May Exotic India. The Hindu, Friday, January 20, Chennai, India: The Hindu. Worship in Hinduism. Prayer Meditation. Firewalking Sanskara Temple dance. Taxon identifiers.
Li Anthocephalus morindifolius Korth.
KADAM (Anthocephalus chinensis)
Medicinal Properties Bark: vulnerary, astringent, aphordisiac, cooling, alexiteric, febrifuge and tonic. Fruits: aphrodisiac and stomachic. Medicinal Use Bark: blood diseases, uterine complaints, biliousness, burning sensation, cure of bowels. Leaves: decoction is used in ulcers, wounds and metrorrhea.
Economic Importance of Anthocephalus chinensis
Paris 5: Paris IV, 6, sect. B, Adansonia 3: Medium-sized or sometimes tall trees with straight columnar bole; crown consisting of closely spaced pairs of horizontally spreading branches; tips of twigs with conical buds. Leaves opposite, petiolate; stipules interpetiolar, narrowly triangular, falling soon.
Anthocephalus chinensis, the Laran Tree of Sabah
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Laran is certainly one of the most rapid growers immediately after virgin forest has been cut. Its rate of growth is variable, however, and appears to fall off rather rapidly, even though large sizes may be attained. The utility of its wood, general ease of establishment, and rapid growth render it a species of considerable potential for tropical forest plantation schemes.