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A poetry professor turned media theoristor media guru, as some in the press called him at the timeMarshall McLuhan startled television watchers during the 's with the notion that the medium they were enthralled by was doing more than transmitting messagesit was the message: Its rapid-fire format, mixing programs and advertisements, conveyed as much asor more thanany single broadcast element.
As television entered a period of huge growth during the 's, McLuhan, then a college professor, became interested in advertising. He thought of it as something to be taken seriously as a new culture form, beyond its obvious capability of selling products.
That interest led to his increasing speculation about what media did to audiences. In his unpredictable modern poetry classes at the University of Toronto, he spoke more and more of media. The students he taught were the television generation, the first to grow up with the medium. Many were fascinated by McLuhan's provocative observations that a medium of communication radically alters the experience being communicated.
A society, he said, is shaped more by the style than by the content of its media. Thus, the linear, sequential style of printing established a linear, sequential style of thinking, in which one thing is considered after another in orderly fashion: it shaped a culture in which objective reason predominated and experience was isolated, compartmentalized, and repeatable.
In contrast, the low-density images of television, composed of a mosaic of light and dark dots, established a style of response in which it is necessary to unconsciously reconfigure the dots immediately in order to derive meaning from them.
It has shaped a culture in which subjective emotion predominates and experience is holistic and unrepeatable. Since television and the other electronic media transcends space and time, the world is becoming a global villagea community in which distance and isolation are overcome.
McLuhan was crisp and assured in his pronouncements and impatient with those who failed to grasp their import. McLuhan's most famous saying, "the medium is the message," was explicated in the first chapter of his most successful book, "Understanding Media," published in and still in print.
It sold very well for a rather abstruse book and brought McLuhan widespread attention in intellectual circles. The media industry responded by seeking his advice and enthusiastically disseminating his ideas in magazines and on television. These ideas caused people to perceive their environment, particularly their media environment, in radically new ways.
It was an unsettling experience for some, liberating for others. Though McLuhan produced some useful insights, he was given to wild generalizations and flagrant exaggerations. Some thought him a charlatan, and he always felt himself an outcast at the university, at least partly because of his disdain for print culture and opposition to academic conventions.
He never seemed quite as energetic after an operation in to remove a huge brain tumor, but he continued to work and teach until he suffered a stroke in He died a year later. Though today his writings are not discussed as much by the general public, his thesis is still considered valid and his ideas have become widely accepted.
LA GALAXIA GUTENBERG
The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man is a book by Marshall McLuhan , in which the author analyzes the effects of mass media, especially the printing press , on European culture and human consciousness. It popularized the term global village ,  which refers to the idea that mass communication allows a village-like mindset to apply to the entire world; and Gutenberg Galaxy ,  which we may regard today to refer to the accumulated body of recorded works of human art and knowledge, especially books. McLuhan studies the emergence of what he calls Gutenberg Man, the subject produced by the change of consciousness wrought by the advent of the printed book. Apropos of his axiom, " The medium is the message ," McLuhan argues that technologies are not simply inventions which people employ but are the means by which people are re-invented. The invention of movable type was the decisive moment in the change from a culture in which all the senses partook of a common interplay to a tyranny of the visual. He also argued that the development of the printing press led to the creation of nationalism , dualism , domination of rationalism , automatisation of scientific research, uniformation and standardisation of culture and alienation of individuals. Movable type, with its ability to reproduce texts accurately and swiftly, extended the drive toward homogeneity and repeatability already in evidence in the emergence of perspectival art and the exigencies of the single "point of view".
La galaxia Gutenberg